Analysis on the sales model of auto parts in Europe, America and Japan
According to the China Automobile Industry Association, the number of auto parts companies in China has reached more than 200,000, and the number of employees is close to 10 million. It is estimated that by 2015, the scale output value of China's auto parts industry will reach 2.5 trillion yuan. However, the ratio of the total output value of China's auto parts and components to the total output value of the automobile manufacturing industry is only 0.7: 1, which is far lower than the international standard of 1.7: 1.
Analysis on the sales model of auto parts in Europe, America and Japan
At present, there are many problems that cannot be ignored in China's auto parts market, such as chaos in the parts market, weak market management, uneven product quality, chaotic prices, widespread counterfeiting and inferiority, information asymmetry and opacity, low quality of employees, and poor after-sales service. Sound etc. These problems are closely related to the sales channels of auto parts. So, how is the production and sales of foreign parts and components organized?
According to statistics, the annual sales of the US spare parts market account for about one-sixth of the global market. In the past 100 years of history, the US auto parts market has grown from the original tens of thousands of brands to dozens of brands today but occupies more than 80% of the market share.
U.S. auto parts distribution channel model
It can be seen that there are mainly three forms of distribution channels for US auto aftermarket parts.
① Supporting market channels. Consisting of a Tier 1 component supplier, OEM parts distribution center and dealer network (4S dealers);
② Distribution market channels. Composed of warehouse-type dealer distribution center, warehouse-type dealer network and maintenance station;
③Retail market channels. Including exclusive chain stores, large discount stores, membership hypermarkets, hardware stores, supermarkets and DIY stores.
Generally, OEMs only purchase some key components such as engines, suspensions, transmissions, etc. from tier-one component suppliers, and most other components are obtained from general component suppliers through their own component distribution centers. At the same time, general parts suppliers may also obtain parts from the vehicle parts supply center and join other sales channels.
The mainstream model of the sales of auto parts in the United States is still a chain-operating system based on brands, and its representative companies such as NAPA, AUTOZONE, PEPBOYS, etc. According to statistics, the sales of spare parts for these three chain companies alone account for 70% of the US auto parts market. These enterprises all implement the four unifications of technology, products, services and management, which enables consumers to buy inexpensive products at any franchise store, thereby increasing the core competitiveness of auto parts chain operations. In recent years, the US auto parts after-sales service market has become more fiercely competitive, and the characteristics of each channel being intertwined are particularly obvious. Retailers such as Wal-mart and PEPBOYS chains no longer only sell parts, but also build sheds and hire technicians In order to fight for the maintenance market, in addition to the spare parts chain business, automobile parts chain enterprises have also established a chain of auto repair operations, organically combining the parts market and the maintenance market, making full use of the market prospects of automobile after-sales service, and complementing each other. promote.
The sales of parts and components in Europe are mainly represented by Germany's parallel supply system, that is, OEMs and auto parts manufacturers develop in parallel, and their parts manufacturers are relatively independent and maintain a relatively free corporate relationship with each other. On the basis of marketization principles, OEMs purchase products from parts and components companies to form supporting relationships. There is basically no capital bond between OEMs and component suppliers. Under this system, vehicle manufacturers can use drawings to invite accessories manufacturers to urge accessories manufacturers to produce according to drawings; at the same time, accessories manufacturers can also independently develop new products for vehicle manufacturers to choose, achieve their own development, and promote competition. Development of the auto parts industry.
European auto parts distribution channel model
The auto parts market in Europe is relatively orderly, and its distribution channels are mainly centered on automobile manufacturers, forming first-tier wholesale outlets, second-tier wholesale outlets, and retail outlets. The first-tier wholesale online stores mainly include: after-sales departments of automobile manufacturers, retail distributors, and centralized management departments for fast repair; the second-tier wholesale outlets include: franchised dealers and parts wholesalers; the retail outlets include: franchised dealers, independent repair stations , Body shop, gas station (supermarket) and quick repair shop.
Japanese auto parts distribution channel model
It can be seen that there are four main distribution channels for automobile aftermarket parts in Japan.
① Vehicle manufacturer route. Parts from the original factory (that is, a Tier 1 component supplier) go from the auto parts manufacturer's parts distribution center to the dealer, and then to the repair station until the customer.
②Part supplier route. Ordinary spare parts suppliers establish their own sales channels, and sell some parts to distributors through supplier distribution centers, and sell other parts to DIY users through retail networks.
③Wholesaler distribution path. Parts suppliers sell auto parts directly to repair stations through this channel.
④ retail route. Auto parts and supplies (such as automotive electronics, auto accessories, various automotive additives, cleaning and maintenance supplies) are mostly sold through national auto supply chains. Gas stations also sell automotive supplies, including motor oil, gear oil, lubricants, and various additives. Automotive tires are mostly sold in tire stores and installed on behalf of customers.
Comparison of sales models of auto parts between the US, Japan and Europe
The characteristics of U.S. auto parts distribution channels are:
① Automobiles within the scope of after-sales service of OEMs are mainly purchased by OEMs from component suppliers and provided with warranty services through their own special service stations or 4S shops;
② Parts supporting manufacturers distribute distribution parts to major parts dealers through distribution centers, and then wholesalers supply to retailers and secondary dealers. This model is conducive to flattening the sales channels, but it makes it difficult for parts distributors to purchase;
③ The main component suppliers on the supporting channel of auto parts are independent component manufacturers such as AutoZone, NAPA, Auto, etc. These suppliers have a complete sales system of their own products-chain operation. For the currently fragmented and chaotic Chinese auto parts market, this chain of operations is not only conducive to the establishment of independent brands of Chinese auto parts, but also can better regulate China's auto parts market.
The characteristics of the European auto parts distribution channel model are:
① The parts supplier supplies parts and components to the vehicle manufacturer in a unified manner, and then the vehicle manufacturer sells parts to its after-sales service unit. The advantage of this model is that vehicle manufacturers can integrate social channels and free service channels. Parts dealers only need to target one manufacturer when ordering parts. A complete supply of parts is conducive to the development of parts brands. The sales channel level is not conducive to the control of channel costs;
② Diversified consumer-oriented approaches in European auto parts retail channels, including franchised dealers, independent repair stations, body shops, gas stations, supermarkets, and quick repair shops. For China, where the auto aftermarket is dominated by 4S stores, this method of expanding the number and type of service outlets is conducive to protecting consumer interests and promoting the development of the auto aftermarket.
The characteristics of the Japanese auto parts distribution channel model are: diversified distribution channels, and auto parts and component suppliers can sell parts to wholesalers and retailers through their own channels. Its advantages are diversified channels, fewer levels of channels, and low channel costs, but the channel conflict between component suppliers and vehicle manufacturers is very strong. For the Chinese auto parts market in the initial stage, if this distribution model is used, it will lead to vicious competition between supporting manufacturers, supporting manufacturers and vehicle manufacturers, which will lower prices and disrupt market order. The final result is likely As a result, many large domestic parts dealers have the right to speak, which is not conducive to the development of auto parts manufacturers' brand accessories.
Looking at the sales channels of foreign auto parts in the United States, Europe, and Japan, there are mainly three forms: accessory channels, distribution channels, and retail channels. Among them, supporting channels refer to auto manufacturers purchasing directly from component manufacturers; distribution channels are mainly agents, franchised dealers, and general distributors, franchised dealers and regional agents are often used; retail channels mainly include brand monopoly systems And after-sales service.